Billy Martin ARTC becomes first ARTI member to gain qualifications in Canada

Billy Martin ARTC

Billy Martin ARTC, CAT(C) in Vancouver

Billy Martin has recently become the first ARTI member to take on the Canadian Athletic Therapists Association’s certification exams and is now recognised as a Certified Athletic Therapist (Canada). This success comes not long after passing the ARTI exams and gaining ARTC status in January 2015.

ARTI President, Paul Berry, congratulated Billy on his achievements

‘On behalf of ARTI I would like to congratulate Billy Martin on being the first ARTI member to successfully sit and pass the CATA exam. Billy’s success follows shortly after ARTI member Paddy McEvoy passed the BOC exam in the USA last December. We’re delighted to see ARTI members avail of the historic agreement between ARTI, CATA and BOC which came into effect on January 1st 2015. This trilateral agreement entitles members of each organisation to sit the certification exams of the other two countries. Well done Paddy and Billy – blazing a trail for ARTI!’

Speaking from Vancouver, Canada, where he is currently practicing as an CAT(C), Billy describes his journey to getting ther

‘I certified with ARTI in January 2015. I emigrated to Vancouver in March of that year. I started out by contacting several registered CATA members; initially to seek advice about preparing for the national certification exams. Over time, this led me in the right direction, and I became acquainted with fellow Canadian colleagues that were also challenging the exams.


The exams consisted of a three hour, 200 question multiple choice theory, and four 30 minute practicals between clinical and field. This required regular practice within groups, which was hard to come by, as the only athletic therapy school in British Columbia is located on Vancouver island. It’s fair to say that I only realised the size of the task at hand, once I was well into the process. For an international, the exams consist of nuances that one can only comprehend by attempting them.


As I was awaiting certification, I acquired my own insurance, and began picking up a lot of field work as a certification candidate; most of which was with two minor ice hockey academies. From September 2015 – March 2016, I covered a lot of hockey games, which included extensive travel throughout British Columbia and Alberta.  In between there have been opportunities in Canadian football, soccer, lacrosse and basketball. Since March, an opening became available for an athletic therapist at an interdisciplinary concussion clinic in Vancouver. I had been lucky to be able to work there as a certification candidate, and now that I have achieved certification, there is an opportunity for me to develop the role of the athletic therapist among an experienced and talented team of health professionals. I worked extremely hard to achieve certification, and at times it felt like a bridge too far. In the end, I’m satisfied, and it brought home to me what progess ARTI has made since it’s recent inception.

I’d like to extend my gratitude to all ARTI members who have worked diligently in helping it to become a reputable organisation, and the opportunities it has afforded to it’s members, home and abroad.

Life in Canada has been very good for me, so far. It seems like there many opportunities, and it is a beautiful country, with friendly people, much like our own. I’d be happy to offer advice to ARTI members considering coming to Canada in the future.’

Congratulations again to Billy and we all wish him best of luck in his future career.

If you have any comments or questions regarding the CATA certification process or any other query arising from Billy’s story then please leave a comment or get in touch at


Paddy leads the way by getting recognition in America

An ARTI member has once again highlighted the exceptional standards of practitioners in Ireland after successfully passing the exams that entitle him to practise in America.

Paddy McEvoy became the first ARTI member to pass the exams since the establishment of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement which enables him to complete the Board of Certification (BOC) exam and become a member of the National Athletic Trainers of America (NATA).

Naturally, Paddy is thrilled with the achievement and he is certainly not going to let the hard work go to waste as he has already finalised his plan to further his studies in the USA.

Paddy McEvoy2

In August, the 23-year-old from Ballyragget, Co Kilkenny, will commence a Masters in Health and Exercise Science and graduate assistantship in Ithaca College in upstate New York which he believes will be a huge boost to his career.

“I took the exam in November and found out the results in December so I was delighted that it all worked out. It was very difficult because the exam is a lot different to the ARTI exams due to the fact that it is all theory and there is more focus on general medical issues.

“I suppose the knowledge base is broader and you also have a lot more in terms of the legal side of things”, added Paddy who graduated from Carlow IT in 2015.

Having decided over the summer while working in a clinic that he wanted to go for the exam, Paddy was virtually in full-time preparation from September to November and based himself in Carlow IT.

Having spent four months in Ithaca College in early 2015 as part of his degree, Paddy’s contacts there enabled him to get advice and direction on many topics for the exam. He admits that this support base was a vital factor in getting through the exam.

“I really enjoyed my spell at Ithaca as it is recognised as one of the foremost colleges for Athletic Training in the USA. I made a lot of contacts and while I was studying, if there was anything I wasn’t sure of there was somebody available to help me so I think that support base as essential for me”, he explained.

Passing the exams gave Paddy the opportunity not only to study at Ithaca but also gain some valuable work experience with the college teams.

“Doing a Masters is very expensive but fortunately I will also be employed by the college for about 20/25 hours per week so that means I don’t have to worry about tuition fees and I will also get hands-on experience with a team.

“I have a choice of field hockey, track and field or rowing, so hopefully I will get hockey as I would prefer work with a contact sport”, explained Paddy who is looking forward to the new venture.

“I never had any intentions of going back to America once I had done my four month placement as I would consider myself more of a home bird. However, when the opportunity came up for 12 months I decided to go for it. At the end I will have a degree and a Masters along with practical experience so that should make me a lot more employable”, he added and pointed out that he expects many others to follow his example in taking the exam.

“I think the fact that somebody has taken the exam and passed it shows that it is possible and already I have had other people on to me looking for a bit of advice”, continued Paddy who will be strengthening the links between the colleges during his stint.

“From my experience there is a good relationship between the Irish and USA colleges and the fact the Americans are so keen to have Irish students which shows the quality of the courses we have here in Carlow IT, Athlone IT and DCU.”, he concluded.


New research will help tackle increasingly common problem among children

A research student is undertaking a study that will help tackle an increasingly prevalent problem among young children.

Lisa Kelly, who iscurrently undergoing a Master of Science by research at Athlone Institute of Technology, is investigating the the Fundamental Movement Skill (FMS) proficiency among Irish primary school children with the intention of identifying the most problematic areas.

This research will be used to develop a tailored intervention programme that will aim to improve overall levels of FMS proficiency.

Lisa Kelly

Lisa, who has an honours degree in Athletic Therapy and Training from Dublin City University, believes that increasing FMS proficiency levels among primary school children will increase their habitual physical activity levels and subsequently help to reduce health issues associated with inactivity.However, in recent years the lifestyle of children is not conducive to acquiring these skills and as a result FMS is an area that needs to be addressed.

“FMS are the basic building blocks of more complex movement skills. They include activities such as running, jumping, hopping, skipping, balancing, throwing and catching. A common belief is that these skills are naturally acquired as children grow and develop, however this is not the case. Children need to be taught how to perform the movements correctly and given plenty of opportunities to practice in order to reach a mature level”, explained Lisa who is from Borrisokane, Co Tipperary.

The critical age period for the acquisition of such skills is said to be between the ages of 5 and 8 years old with most children having the potential to master such skills by the age of 6 years old.

However, the level of the problem is highlighed by a recent studies which illustrated that FMS proficiency levels amongst Irish first year students (13 years old), revealed that only 11% achieved mastery in a battery test of 9 FMS (O Brien et al. 2015). Along with this only 12% of Irish first year student are achieving the recommended levels of daily physical and so it is essential that primary schools are targeted to try and reverse these trends.

The attraction of video games means that many children aren’t getting the opportunity to develop these skills and Lisa points out that the consequences can be severe.

“If children are not provided the opportunity to master the basic FMS at a young age, they will lack the competence and subsequently the confidence to take part in physical activity as they grow older.

“They will be more likely to avoid activities that will expose them to ‘public failure’ and thus opt for a more sedentary lifestyle giving rise to associated health problems such as obesity, depression, chronic heart disease, higher risk of certain cancers and osteoarthritis to name a few, which are costing the Irish state close to €437 million each year.

“FMS form the foundation for a physically active lifestyle. A physically active lifestyle enhances overall health, physically, socially and psychologically. FMS therefore are extremely important, number one to reverse current unhealthy trends and number two, to save future generations from the detrimental effects of sedentary behaviours”, she added.

The study will see Lisa test the proficiency levels of over 300 primary school students from Senior Infants to Fifth Class in 16 FMS and is expected to be completed by autumn 2017.

These tests will be divided into three domains, namely locomotor (methods of moving from one point to another), object control skills (the use of hands or other implement to control objects e.g. balls) and stability skills (static and dynamic balance). In addition to the Y balance test which objectively measures dynamic balance, 15 skills will be subjectively assessed meaning the prime focus is on ‘how’ the skill is being performed as opposed to the outcome of the skill. Each skill is scored based on the presence or absence of certain performance criteria. For example, when assessing the skill of running, the performance criteria are as follows:

(1) Arms move in opposition to legs with elbows bent

(2) Brief period where both feet are off the surface

(3) Narrow foot placement landing on heel or toe (not flat footed)

(4) Non-support leg bent about 90 degrees so foot is close to buttocks

Each child is given a demonstration of the skill by the investigator and is then asked to perform a practice trial followed by two test trials. The two test trials are scored by giving a mark of 1 for each performance criteria successfully completed or a 0 for each unsuccessful or absent performance criteria. Marks are added up for the two trials of each skill to give individual skill scores. This will allow us to identify skills which are most problematic for the sample tested and will in turn direct the development of future intervention programmes with particular emphasis on the weakest areas.

Overseas students keen on Athletic Therapy courses in Ireland

Over the past number of years, studies in Athletic Therapy in Ireland have resulted in the discipline being very highly regarded.

Courses in Dublin City University, Athlone IT and Carlow IT have all contributed to the growing reputation of Athletic Therapy, and as a consequence they are now among the most highly sought after.

A measure of the regard in which these courses are now being held is that they are now becoming popular with overseas students.

An example of this is that three university students from North America have recently arrived in Ireland for a one-semester placement as they sought to benefit from the expertise and approach of lecturers on this side of the Atlantic.

Harley Thwaites from Vancouver is currently studying in Athlone IT, Craig Leahy recently returned to New York after being based in Carlow IT, while Jennifer Hussey is spending a semester in DCU.

All three have reported it to be a very positive experience in which they have not only learned a lot about their chosen course, but also mixed in a new social setting and immersed themselves in a new culture.


HARLEY THWAITES is in no doubt that it was a very worthwhile decision. The 24-year-old is in third year of his Athletic Therapy degree in the University of Winnipeg who arrived in Ireland on January 3 and will be here until May.

“It is a little bit different from what we do but it is a very interesting course. There is a lot of focus on areas that we don’t cover so it is nice to pick up something different.

“We get to do a lot of practicums and the main thing is to get hours under your belt, and also to experience different sports. As a result we get to see different types of injuries”, explained Harley, who believes others will take the opportunity in the future.

“I would certainly recommend it to other students as it is very practical and you learn a lot”, he explained and added that he hoped to return to Ireland when he is qualified.


Meanwhile, CRAIG LEAHY from Saranac Lake, New York, has recently returned to the University of New Hampshire after spending almost four months at Carlow IT.

Craig got the opportunity to travel due to a long-standing relationship between UNH and Carlow IT and jumped at the chance to take part in the progamme. His stint lasted from September 4 to December 20, and he too found it extremely beneficial, both academically and personally.


“The cultural shock was not too overwhelming, in fact the first few weeks I recall finding so many similarities between Ireland and the US, but once I started to branch out more, travel and meet people I quickly discovered so many wonderful cultural differences.

“The education I received at Carlow IT was incredible, the students and staff were so welcoming and energised. I was able to learn new techniques and even show off a few US ones”, explained Craig who pointed out that one of the big advantages was experience of manual therapies.

“The Irish system focused so much on manual therapies and healing with the hands, something that is not very prevalent Stateside. This has given me a unique advantage with my clinical work. Athletes respond much better to hands on than machine modalities”, he added and continued to identify one drawback.

“The Irish students weren’t required to take discovery or inquiry courses, so they focused exclusively on their subjects, which to be honest I didn’t like”, he explained but overall felt it was a very positive experience that more people should explore.

“Travel and study while you are young and still impressionable, it will truly change your perspectives and alter everything you once thought you knew and replace it with a new understanding of the incredible world around you”, added Craig.

Another student to make the trip across the Atlantic is JENNIFER HUSSEY who originally from Indianapolis, Indiana, and currently studying at Purdue University.

Jennifer arrived at Dublin City University on January 27 and will spend four months in Ireland, having jumped at the chance to experience something new.


“I decided to study in Ireland because my athletic training programme director, Larry Leverenz, worked with the DCU athletic training faculty to set up this study abroad programme.

“When I heard about it, I thought it sounded like a great opportunity to not only explore a new area I have never been and learn the different techniques used by athletic trainers and physiotherapists here. I also had a few friends back at home that had visited Ireland and told me how wonderful and friendly all the people were here”, she explained and pointed out that it has been a very worthwhile decision to come to Ireland.

“I very much find the subjects useful. It is nice to also see a different perspective on various techniques. I have also gotten the chance to learn a substantial more about massage, trigger points, and myofascial release”, added Jennifer who revealed that she has noticed some differences between college life at home and in Ireland.

“I would say college life is different at home compared to here. Students rarely go home when at college back in the States, but I have noticed that it is very common to go home on the weekends here. In addition, collegiate athletics are a major part of the college life back at home”, explained Jennifer who added that it is something she would recommend to others.

“I definitely would recommend other students to visit Ireland. I have had an amazing experience so far, from the people to the city and all of the other gorgeous landscape the country has to offer. I am in love with the cliffs and the gorgeous greenery here in Ireland”, she added.



Richie investigates benefits of MWMs (Mobilisation With Movement) and self- MWM

A final year project by a Sports Rehabilitation and Athletic Therapy student at IT Carlow has provided such interesting findings that they will be published in a highly respected journal.

Richie Walsh produced the study on MWMs (Mobilisation With Movement) and self- MWM as a possible treatment and home exercise option for restricted hips, femoral acetabular impingement (FAI) and hip osteoarthritis (OA), as part of his final year in IT Carlow. The study has been published in the Manual Therapy Journal.

Richie Walsh


The study indicates that caudal MWMs improves internal rotation in a functional position. A loss of internal rotation is associated with hip pathologies. FAI is believed to be a precursor to hip OA. Preventing the loss of mobility may help reduce the effects of osteoarthritis and provides an important stepping-stone to further work in the area.

The Carlow native revealed that the purpose of his study was to investigate if MWM helps improve the internal rotation of the hip and also to see if the self-mobilisation, using a resistance band, improves rotation.

He discovered that therapist-induced MWMs produced a significant improvement in functional rotation using the functional rotation test, while the self-mobilisation findings, although not significant, were no different to the therapist-induced MWMs.

“This means that using MWMs can improve internal rotation of the hip and this key finding means that it could be used as an alternative treatment, for example while on a waiting list for surgery, and self-MWMs could be used as a home exercise”, explained Richie who pointed out that there are a number of benefits to this approach.

“The prevention of a loss of mobility may stop problems further down the line such as osteoarthritis, while home exercise means that patients have some control of managing their own treatment rather than simply waiting for surgery or their next visit to a therapist”, added Richie who is now doing a Research Masters in Dry Needling and Shockwave Therapy for Treatment of Trigger Points in Carlow.

The 34-year-old was delighted that his study will be published and is hoping that it will lead to further research in the area.

“I came up with the idea after attending the World Federation of Athletic Therapy and Training World (WFATT) Congress hosted by the Faculty of Sport and Exercise Medicine (FSEM), ARTI on ‘The Sporting Hip, Groin and Hamstring: A Complete Picture’, which was held in Dublin in Sept 2014.” I got a good insight on the topic and decided there was a lot of potential in the subject of the hip groin and hamstring injury. It was interesting because there is a lot of interest in hip pathologies (FAI and hip OA) but not a lot of research had been done into the conservative treatment options for that area.

“I wasn’t really expecting it to be published but I decided to submit it as it was a novel study and hopefully it will be a stepping-stone for further work”, added Richie.

Richie’s study can be viewed in full on



Sam brings value of Athletic Therapy to Dundalk FC

Dundalk FC were the dominant force in League of Ireland football over the course of 2015, and the double-winning team has been honoured with many team and individual awards over the close season.

One man who may not have received the recognition of those on the field, but certainly played his part in the success, was Athletic Therapist, Sam Rice.

Sam Rice


Sam joined up with the Oriel Park backroom team at the start of the season and was delighted with the opportunity to combine his career with his passion for football.

The 24-year-old who runs a clinic in Drogheda, got his first taste of working with a football club when he was with the Shamrock Rovers B team as part of his final year project in DCU where he studied Athletic Therapy and Training.

He also had a work placement with English Championship side, Wolverhampton Wanderers during fourth year, while he also worked with the PFAI FIFPRO team that showcased out-of-contract League of Ireland players in Norway.

When Sam heard there was a vacancy in Dundalk, he didn’t hesitate to put his name forward and after working with the club for a week, he was asked take up the position alongside physio, Fergal Kerin.

“I was delighted to be given the chance by Stephen Kenny and I have to say that I really enjoyed the first year. It couldn’t have gone any better in terms of the team winning the double and getting to feature in the Champions League.

“It really is such a professional set-up with the likes of Stephen Kenny, Vinny Perth, Steve Williams and Fergal, among others, all very dedicated, so you have to match that level of enthusiasm”, explained Sam who studied at DCU from 2010 to 2014.

It is no coincidence that one of the key factors in Dundalk’s League and Cup triumph was the fact that they didn’t suffer with many injuries over the course of the year, and for that Sam and his colleagues must take a lot of credit.

“Over the season we didn’t too many players out with injury and there is always an element of luck with that. The good thing about the players is that they were always ready to take advice and to do the extra bits required to ensure they remained in very good condition”, added Sam.

In being part of such a successful set-up, Sam was not only helping Dundalk FC and gaining valuable experience for himself, but he was very much striking another blow for Athletic Therapists with his contribution to the success.

“I suppose one of the biggest barriers for Athletic Therpists is getting people to understand exactly what we contribute. It is probably due to the fact that it is a relatively new discipline but slowly people are realising what we are about.

“Once people know that we have a high level of knowledge and that we specialise on sport, that is exactly what teams and organisations want. You have to remember that we go through a very tough four-year course to qualify and get lots of hands-on experience along the way. The lecturers are highly qualified and the likes of Enda Whyte, Miriam Downey and Noel McCaffrey have been a brilliant help to me along the way”, added Sam.

On a lighter note, Sam had another barrier to overcome when he arrived in Oriel Park, as being from a rival town in Drogheda, he had to endure some good-natured banter along the way.

“I am often referred to as the ‘Drogheda Physio’, but at this stage I think I have been accepted and I have to say it is a great community to work in”, he added.

ARTI seminars in the management of concussion

ARTI is delighted to announce two seminars in the management of sports related concussion. The seminars will be held in Athlone Institute of Technology on the 12th of November at 7.30pm sharp with registration beginning at 6.45pm. The seminar will be delivered by Dr. Michael O’Brien, MD. Dr. Michael O’Brien is an attending physician in the Division of Sports Medicine at Boston Children’s Hospital, and an Instructor in Orthopedics at Harvard Medical School.  He is the Director of the Sports Concussion Clinic, and served as the Associate Program Director for the Primary Care Sports Medicine Fellowship Program at Children’s. He is board certified in Internal Medicine with added qualifications in Sports Medicine

On Friday the 13th of November in GMIT, Dr. Michael Neill, will be joined by Dr. Pat O’Neill to deliver another seminar in the evaluation and management of sports related concussion. Dr Pat O’Neill is a Medical Consultant in Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine at the Mater Private Hospital and Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital in Dublin; and University Lecturer in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine at Trinity College Dublin. The seminar will begin at 7.30 pm sharp with registration beginning at 6.45pm.

ARTI will award 2 CPDs for each seminar. Attendance fee is €25 (students €10 – with I.D).

To reserve a place call James O Toole on 0862359148 or email

Dr. Michael O'Brien, MD

Dr. Michael O’Brien, MD

A huge success: FSEM Conference supported by ARTI,

The recent FSEM conference, supported by ARTI, proved to be a huge success. Building upon last year’s initial partnership, ARTI proudly supported the Twelfth FSEM Annual Scientific Conference 2015 “Sports Injuries and Illness in Young People – A Complete Picture”. As well as the numerous ARTCs in attendance, there were also international members of the Athletic Training and Therapy worlds with visitors from Spain and the USA to name two. Experts from around the world presented on topics relating to sports injuries and illnesses in young people. ARTI was excellently represented by Dr. Siobhán O’Connor ARTC, Mr Andrew Watson ARTC and Ms Áine Lucey, ARTC in the main thematic sessions. There were also many research presentations delivered by current and future ARTCs.

This type of collaboration between ARTI, the FSEM and ISCP in delivering this high quality sports medicine conference is something that ARTI wishes to pursue into the future with the help and input of its members.

Dr Eric Sauers, ATC, Mr Paul Berry, ARTC and Ms Karen McCann ARTC in attedence

Dr Eric Sauers, ATC, Mr Paul Berry, ARTC and Ms Karen McCann ARTC in attendance

Dr Siobhan O'Connor presenting at the Conference

Dr Siobhan O’Connor, ARTC, presenting at the Conference

Successful study on hip and groin injuries among elite Gaelic footballers

Successful study on hip and groin injuries among elite Gaelic footballers

Posted on February 4, 2015

The increasing problem of hip and groin injuries among elite Gaelic footballers was the issue for an extensive study by ARTI members recently.

Overall, the research highlighted the extent of the problem and reached findings that will be of benefit to therapists while also providing a platform for further research on the topic.

The research was conducted at DCU by a group that included Dr Noel McCaffrey, Miriam Downey, Enda Whyte, Tiarnán Ó Doinn and Davide Susta. Fourth year students who collected the data included, Sean Callinan, Ciara Jennings, Doireann Church, Ian Hickey, Conall Hoey, Mark O’Connor, Regina Halpin and Paul Dean.

One of the main successes was in commencing a study into this particular type of injury as Tiarnán explains it is something that hasn’t really been looked at in depth.

“The impetus for the research is that hip and groin pain is becoming recognised as a common and debilitating problem for elite GAA players and so far research has been limited despite the fact that it represents the fourth most common injury.

“The view was backed up by our findings which revealed that 80 per cent of the players we tested had current or previous (or both) hip and groin pain. That validates the problem of hip and groin pain in this type of cohort”, he explained.

“In many cases these can be long-standing injuries with a high re-injury rate, but in general there is very little information out there in terms of Gaelic football, and that was one of the main reasons for conducting the research”, added Tiarnán.

The study was made possible by access to a group of some of the country’s top GAA players ranging in age from 16 to their early thirties, and conducted under the following six headings:

Imaging (MRI)

Functional Testing

Strength Testing

Range of Motion Testing


Clinical Assessment

In terms of Imaging, MRIs were carried out over a four month period and broken down into four categories:

1) Those that never had an episode of pain at any stage of their career. 2) Those who had a history but were asymptomatic at the time. 3. Those who were symptomatic. 4) Those who developed pain between the MRI and follow-up call- roughly three months later.

The results showed that there were no significant differences in the probability of having an overall abnormal hip/groin finding on MRI across the four groups, which led to the conclusion that it is important for MRIs to be interpreted with a thorough history.

The Functional Testing research produced significant findings as the group developed the ‘Lateral Rebound Hop Test’ where a player jumped sideways from one foot to the other as far as they could, then back immediately. It proved to be a very reliable test and was able to identify significantly differences between dominant and non-dominant sides.

It was established that this hop test could be reliably applied to clinical practice. This could help determine when a player is ready to return to play due its ability to distinguish between side-to-side asymmetries. Also, the normative data collected could be applied to a similar cohort as a benchmarking tool in the return to play process.

The Strength Test also showed the benefit of the ‘Lateral Rebound Hop Test’ as this could be used in a practice as a more economic substitute for a dynamometer. This was because a moderate correlation was found between the return phase of the lateral rebound hop test and adductor to abductor ratios. However, the strength testing was unable to demonstrate a link between those previously injured and those free from injury.

Hip rotation is an established risk factor for hip and groin injury among other football codes. In this study a novel method of testing using a smartphone inclinometer app was used. This method proved to have excellent reliability and improved the speed and accuracy of measurement. Once again the results showed no difference between those previously with or without pain. However, this novel method has numerous other applications.

The Questionnaire revealed that 46 per cent of players had a history of hip and groin pain during their careers, while 80 per cent said they had current or previous pain, or both.

Reflecting on the comprehensive study, Tiarnán Ó Doinn, felt that overall it was very successful.

“The fact that we could establish that 80 per cent of the players experienced current or previous pain (or both) validates the problem of hip and groin pain among this type of cohort and it shows the need for research in this area. It suggests that this is a big problem and that we need to do something about it.

“We can also say that one of the successes is the fact that MRIs must be interpreted with caution as they won’t necessarily help with diagnosis”, Tiarnán added.

“One of the positives is that we have a very solid screening system as every test developed had excellent reliability”, he explained and pointed out that the benefit to ARTI members is that this screening can be implemented within their practice.

According to Tiarnán, some of the benefits mean that players from this cohort could be tracked over the course of their careers to see the implications of imbalances and how they can be addressed. It also allowed for the possibility of tailoring training programmes to reduce the risk of injury.